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Secrecy News -- 06/18/07

From: Steven Aftergood <saftergood.nul>
Date: Mon, 18 Jun 2007 14:00:01 -0400
Fwd Date: Tue, 19 Jun 2007 07:31:53 -0400
Subject: Secrecy News -- 06/18/07


SECRECY NEWS
from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy
Volume 2007, Issue No. 62
June 18, 2007

Secrecy News Blog: http://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/

Support Secrecy News:
http://www.fas.org/static/contrib_sec.jsp


**	SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIAL FORCES AND INTELLIGENCE
**	SENATE SEEKS REPORTS ON ENERGY SECURITY, NUCLEAR WEAPONS POLICY
**	DOD UPDATES POLICY ON CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS


SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIAL FORCES AND INTELLIGENCE

The structure of Army special operations forces, their
capabilities and characteristic mission profiles, and the role
of intelligence in supporting them are described in a newly
disclosed U.S. Army field manual.

There are nine distinct missions for Army special forces,
including: unconventional warfare, direct action,
counterproliferation, foreign internal defense, psychological
operations, and "special activities," which is the DoD euphemism
for covert action.

"Special activities fall under Executive Order 12333, United
States Intelligence Activities," according to the Army field
manual. "They require a presidential finding and congressional
oversight. ARSOF [Army Special Operations Forces] conduct them
abroad in support of national foreign policy objectives, but in
a manner that USG [US Government] participation is neither
apparent nor publicly acknowledged."

The 200-page Army field manual, which remains in effect, was
issued in 2001. A copy of the unclassified document was obtained
by Secrecy News.

See "Army Special Operations Forces Intelligence," Field Manual
FM 3-05.102, July 2001:

http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-05-102.pdf

The secrecy of DoD special operations has significantly impeded
oversight and accountability, reported Seymour Hersh in The New
Yorker this week. The Hersh article also said that the Bush
Administration had "unilaterally determined after 9/11" that
military intelligence operations could be conducted on
presidential authority without congressional notification --
 notwithstanding the contrary language of the Army field manual.

 http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/06/25/070625fa_fact_her
sh

The "can do" attitude that characterizes Army and other special
operations forces may make them attractive to policy makers, but
it can also be a cause for concern, according to a congressional
review of the failed Army Ranger mission in Somalia in 1993
(cited in a 2006 paper by David Tucker and Christopher J. Lamb
of National Defense University).

"One of the weaknesses of a unit like Task Force Ranger, whose
combat capabilities are unparalleled, is the belief by the unit
members and its commanders that they can accomplish any
mission."

"Because of the supreme confidence of special operations forces,
the chain of command must provide more oversight to this type of
unit than to conventional forces."

See "Review of the Circumstances Surrounding the Ranger Raid on
October 3-4, 1993 in Mogadishu, Somalia," Senate Armed Services
Committee, September 29, 1995:

http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/1995_rpt/mogadishu.pdf


SENATE SEEKS REPORTS ON ENERGY SECURITY, NUCLEAR WEAPONS POLICY

A bipartisan bill introduced in the Senate would require the
Director of National Intelligence to prepare an unclassified
report on energy security.

"American dependence on foreign oil has made our Nation less
safe," said Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) in an introductory statement.
"Oil revenues have provided income for dangerous rogue states,
they have sparked bloody civil wars, and they have even provided
funding for terrorism."

"In a sickening phenomenon that I call the terror tax, every
time that Americans drive their cars down to the gas station and
fill up at the pump, the reality is that a portion of that money
is then turned over to foreign governments that 'backdoor' it
over to Islamist extremists, who use that money to perpetuate
terrorism and hate."

http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2007_cr/s1613.html

The next administration would be required to conduct a
comprehensive review of U.S. nuclear weapons policy and to
prepare an unclassified report of its nuclear posture review,
according to the 2008 defense authorization act, as marked up by
the Senate Armed Services Committee.

The report, which is intended to update the 2001 nuclear posture
review (NPR), would have to be submitted in unclassified form in
December 2009.

"Although the Secretary of Defense was directed to submit the
December 2001 NPR in an unclassified form, unfortunately this
never happened," the Senate Committee said.

http://www.fas.org/sgp/congress/2007/sen-npr.html


DOD UPDATES POLICY ON CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS

To qualify for conscientious objector status and to be granted
military discharge on that basis, an individual must oppose all
wars, not just a particular war. However, a conscientious
objector may still embrace "spiritual warfare" between good and
evil, the Department of Defense explained in a new policy
instruction.

"An individual who desires to choose the war in which he or she
will participate is not a Conscientious Objector under the law.
The individual's objection must be to all wars rather than a
specific war."

But "a belief in a theocratic or spiritual war between the
powers of good and evil does not constitute a willingness to
participate in 'war' within the meaning of this Instruction." In
other words, it is possible both to be a "spiritual warrior" and
a conscientious objector. It is uncertain whether enlisting in
spiritual warfare on the side of evil would void this
distinction.

See "Conscientious Objectors," Department of Defense Instruction
1300.06, May 5, 2007:

http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/i1300_06.pdf



_______________________________________________
Secrecy News is written by Steven Aftergood and published by the
Federation of American Scientists.

The Secrecy News Blog is at:
http://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/

To SUBSCRIBE to Secrecy News, go to:
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SUPPORT Secrecy News with a donation here:
http://www.fas.org/static/contrib_sec.jsp


_______________________
Steven Aftergood
Project on Government Secrecy
Federation of American Scientists
web:  www.fas.org/sgp/index.html
email: saftergood.nul
voice: (202) 454-4691


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