From: Ted Viens <email@example.com> Date: Sun, 19 Oct 1997 22:28:45 -0700 Fwd Date: Sun, 26 Oct 1997 07:39:50 -0500 Subject: Re: ACC: Remarkable Update By Bob Wolf > From: Stig_Agermose@online.pol.dk (Stig Agermose) > To: firstname.lastname@example.org > Date: Sat, 18 Oct 1997 12:45:50 +0100 > Subject: ACC: Remarkable Update By Bob Wolf > Found at: > http://www.sightings.com/ufo/accandloseufo.htm > ************************** > SIGHTINGS > =BF > ACC/Transistor Origin Update > and Did the Air Force > LOSE a UFO?! > by Bob Wolf > 10-17-97 > (Note: The following key points were edited from > Bob Wolf's lengthy ACC update by Stig Agermose) > =BF > Scientists at S.G. Thompson, RCA Research, Lawrence Livermore, NASA, > ACSA, Sarnoff Research and the Department of Defense all agree that the > Transistor was "brand spanking new" in December of 1947, had no > precedent and appeared to be inadequately and hastily researched, and > was unconnected to any prior technology. > =BF > Also: Nasa Astronaut Edgar Mitchell agrees with the basic idea of the > technology transfer at that time and later, "from a UFO captured by the > Defense Department". (See http://www.sightings.com/ufo/mitchell.htm > and > http://american-computer.com/mitchell.htm > - editor's note) > =BF > And: if you really knew anything about the Transistor's > phenomenological physics, you would know that there is NO WAY that > William Shockley could have stumbled onto it by studying "High Back > Voltage" Germanium Diodes. > =BF ---Snippety, hack, hack, cut-cut-cut--- No Foolin' Some of the original production runs of the actual Shockley Point Contact Transistors are still being found in old warehouse diggin's and are being sold by some electronic surplus dealers. Item No.: G5040 Antique Transistor These were among the first transistors made and we are selling them as a collector's item. The case is one of the most common metal cases for these early transistors. This one was made by Sprague and has long wire leads. The Electronic Goldmine 800-445-0697 8 am to 4:30 pm Arizona time. http://www.goldmine-elec.com Some twenty five years ago, I ordered an identical appearing transistor from an electronic surplus dealer near Peabody, Mass. They described it as a point contact transistor. In all of the surplus buys of transistors I have made in the past thirty years, I have never bought one called functional in the old style metal case. And I do remember the excitement in the hobby market when germanium transistors were suplanted by silicon. To be sure that these were not early planar transistors, but actual point contact transistors, one would have to be cut open and examined under a microscope. The point contact transistor would not have any visible surface patterns. Warning... Warning... The following comments are purely Conjecture... This is mere speculation on what I think really happened. Also some suggestions for different approaches in researching this contentious issue. Naturally, mindless speculation is most valuable when it serves as a hook for hanging more historically accurate information. Solid state diodes were only available in a couple of flavors. Point contact diodes derived from early cat's whiskers and metal-metal oxide diodes of the selenium or copper variety. Dopant effects creating P or N germanium were not yet well understood or appreciated. Shockley et al were primarily focused on the surface charge effects of purified germanium. One of them was studying the bulk surface charge properties, another the effect of over-zapping the whisker to the substrate and probably Shockley was diddling two whiskers on a common substrate and noticed the interdependant current effects. After a few months of diddling, a sufficiently repeatable combination of substrate purity and crystal orientation, and whisker metallurgy, placement and bonding, and device performance where discovered to permit thinking about prodution. Production techniques were devised and a few trusted manufacturers, such as Sprague, began production of the Shockley transistor. One small problem. The Shockley transistor was fragile, limited in performance, and widely varied in characteristics. They are usable but not very satisfying. Worse than this, there were few evident paths for the evolution of this solid state technology. Perhaps a covert activity was on a converging path. Soon after the Shockley team begins diddling two whiskers on a germanium substrate, intelligence officers show up and take one or two of the team into a secure room and show them the early investigation of a peculiar device. Microscopic studies revealed most of the surface of what is believed to be an electronic control device to be too intricate to decipher with a few larger patches of peculiar alloys often paired together. Metallurgical analysis had already determined that one of the alloys was a very pure silicon with a trace of boron, the other with a trace of arsenic. The selected team member was asked to speculate on these revelations and how they might be incorporated into the teams work. "Serendipitously" the member begins researching lightly doped semiconductors quickly focusing on boron and arsenic. Bonded layers and soon planar deposits are forming more rugged and repeatable transistors. Within a year, the fabrication lines are switched from making fully earth devised point contact transistors to producing back engineered non-earth planar transistors. Within another few years, transistors are being advertised in the Journal of the IRE for commercial production. Much of the support for the historical account of the discovery of the transistor is in the scientific papers highlighting the milestones in its development. The fault in this proof are the missing records of failure along the way. When researching an unknown technology, many mistakes and wrong paths will be taken. Lab notes should disclose these faults. I suspect that in the development of the Shockley point contact transistor there are many varieties of substrate tried, several alloys of whiskers, and a range of electronic parameters. Lab notes probably recount most of these experiments. My suspicion is that the body of lab notes revealing the many false attempts at selecting the best dopants and the best geometries for the junction transistor technology will be strangely inadequate. In the libraries of the former Soviet Union there exists peered reports and laboratory documents that prove the transistor was invented there. Yet we know that these papers reveal the effort of back engineered research. What would it tell us if the timeline and the paper trail of the introductin of the transistor in the old Soviet Union closely echoed the earlier historical development here? A couple of issues allow me to contemplate a non-earth source for modern semiconducter technology. One is the shortage of reported faulty research paths and broad sample variations. The other is the short timeline from crude proof of technology to commercial availability of an untried revolutionary device. Bye... Ted..
[ Next Message | Previous Message | This Day's Messages ]
This Month's Index |
UFO UpDates - Toronto - Operated by Errol Bruce-Knapp